Your roadmap to a 2200+ SAT Score!
SAT Vocabulary

Good Vocabulary is a MUST for a high SAT score.

In both the Sentence Completion Section and the Reading comprehension section of the SAT, you
will come across many difficult words. Each correct answer on the SAT is worth roughly 10 points.
Even if you could increase your Work Power marginally, it could mean many more correct answers
and a significantly higher score.

A good vocabulary is inextricably linked to a good memory. To have a deep and wide vocabulary, a
student needs a very good memory.

So how do SAT Winners go about developing a good memory?


The commonly accepted idea that more memorizing makes memorizing easier  is false, and that
there is no truth in the popular figure of speech that likens the memory to a muscle that grows stronger
with use.

However, practice may result in an unconscious improvement in the Winning methods of memorizing.

By practice a student  comes to unconsciously discover and employ new associative methods in
recording of facts, making them easier to recall, but we can certainly add nothing to the actual scope
and power of retention.

Yet many books on memory-training seek to develop the general ability to remember by incessant
practice in memorizing particular words, just as one would develop a muscle by exercise.

The real cause of a poor memory is Not the  loss of retentiveness, but  the loss of an intensity of
interest. _It is the failure to form sufficiently large groups and complexes of related ideas, emotions
and muscular movements associated with the particular fact to be remembered.

Developing a Winning Memory

We recall things by their associations. When you set your mind to remember any particular fact, your
conscious effort should not be to vaguely will that it shall be impressed and retained, but analytically
and deliberately to
connect it with one or more other facts already in your mind.

The student who "crams" for an examination makes no permanent addition to his knowledge. There
can be no recall without association, and "cramming" allows no time to form associations.

If you find it difficult to remember a fact or a word, do not waste your energies in "willing" it to return.
Try to recall some other fact or  name associated with it.

If your memory is good in most respects, but poor in a particular line, it is because you do not interest
yourself in that line, and therefore have no material for association.  
Tom's memory was a blank on most math formulae, but he was a walking dictionary.

To improve your memory you must increase the number and variety of your
mental associations.

Many ingenious methods, scientifically correct, have been devised to aid in the remembering of
particular facts. These methods are based wholly on the principle that that is most easily recalled
which is associated in our minds with the most complex and elaborate groupings of related ideas.

Make systematic use of your senses.

Do you find it difficult to remember names? It is because you do not link them in your mind with
enough associations. Every time a man is introduced to you, look about you. Who is present? Take
note of as many and as great a variety of surrounding facts and circumstances as possible. Think of
the man's name, and take another look at his face, his dress, his physique. Think of his name, and at
the same time his voice and manner. Think of his name, and mark the place where you are now for
the first time meeting him.
Think of his name in conjunction with the name and personality of the friend who presented him.

Memory is not a distinct faculty of mind in the sense that one student  is generously endowed in that
respect while another is deficient. Memory is wholly a question oftrained habits of mental operation,
and can be improved.

Your memory is just as good as mine or any other student's. It is your indifference to what you would
call "irrelevant facts" that is at fault.

Therefore, cultivate habits of observation. Fortify the observed facts you wish to recall with a multitude
of outside associations. Never rest with a mere halfway knowledge of things.

However, that does not imply that you have to be a Walking Dictionary. The following 1200 + words  
cover about Ninty five Percent of the words appearing in the SAT.

Strategies for Building a Winning Vocabulary using Mental Associations

Many SAT winners have successfully used one or more of the strategies below to remember 1000
word wordlists in just a few days.

- OUT OF PROPORTION - In all your images, try to distort size and shape. You can imagine things
much larger than their normal size or conversely,  microscopically small.

- SUBSTITUTION -  You could visualise footballers kicking a television around a football pitch instead
of a football, or pens growing on a tree instead of leaves. Substituting an out of place item in an
image increases the probability of recall.

-EXAGGERATION - Try to picture vast quantities in your images.

- MOVEMENT - Any movement or action is always easy to remember. For example, Tutorial 1
suggested that you see yourself cutting into a sausage and gallons of ink squirting out and hitting you
in the face.

e.g. the word ricochet means to bounce or skip off. This word can easily be linked with Rick, you
might be a person you know.  Imagine your friend jumping on to a wall head on and then bouncing off
from it. Think of his dazed face when he skips off the wall, imagine the vivid color of the wall.

- HUMOUR - The funnier, more absurd and zany you can make your images, the more memorable
they will be.

e.g. the word torpid means slow. Torpid can easily be linked to Torpedo.  Imagine a Torpedo chasing
away a tortoise. Imagine the tortoise trying to get away from teh torpedo and the torpedo unable to
keep up with the speed of the tortoise. Imagine it happening in a small path in teh Jungle. Imagine the
torpedo making a hissing sound. Make the picture as vivid as possible.
You will never forget the meaning of torpid again.

Applying any combination of these five principles when forming your images will help make your
mental associations truly outstanding and memorable.

At first you may find that you need to consciously apply one or more of the five principles in order to
make your pictures sufficiently ludicrous. After a little practice however, you should find that applying
the principles becomes an automatic and natural process

- When you learn new words, make sure you learn them in a context. It is much easier to picture a
sentence rather than a word in isolation.

-Since a lot of English words are derived from Greek & Latin roots, it makes sense to be aware of
these and the suffixes and prefixes commonly used.

- Pay attention to the tone of the words, whether soft or hard, harsh or mind, negative or positive
This could help you guess when in doubt, especially in the Sentence Completion section.

- Play games like scrabble & crosswords. This will make building vocabulary fun and you will not get
put off after sometime.

- Perhaps the
Best way to increase your vocabulary is to read, read and read. There is absolutely
no substitute for that! Reading helps you learn new words from the context in which they are used,
thereby making it easy to remember the new words and more importantly, how and when it is used.

The following 1200 words are the most common words appearing in the SAT and account for more
than 95% of the difficult words that you are likely to encounter.

To make it easy for you to remember new words, each word below is illustrated by a sentence.
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SAT Verbal - Vocabulary List


    (adv.) on or toward the rear of a ship

    The passengers moved abaft of the ship so as to escape the fire in the front of the ship.  


    (v.; n) to leave behind; to give something up; freedom; enthusiasm; impetuosity

    After failing for several years, he abandoned his dream of starting a grocery business.

    Lucy embarked on her new adventure with abandon.


    (v.) to degrade; humiliate; disgrace

    The mother’s public reprimand abased the girl.  The insecure father, after failing to achieve his own life-long goals,
    abased his children whenever they failed.


    (v.) to shorten; compress; diminish

    His vacation to Japan was abbreviated when he acquired an illness treatable only in the United States.


    (v.) to reject, renounce, or abandon

    Due to his poor payment record, it may be necessary to abdicate our relationship with the client.  aberrant (adj.) abnormal;
    straying from the normal or usual path The aberrant flight pattern of the airplane alarmed the air traffic controllers.

    His aberrant behavior led his friends to worry the divorce had taken its toll.  
    abeyance (n.) a state of temporary suspension or inactivity Since the power failure, the town has been in abeyance.


    (v.) to hate

    By the way her jaw tensed when he walked in, it is easy to see that she abhors him.

    The dog abhorred cats, chasing and growling at them whenever he had the opportunity.


    (adj.) of the worst or lowest degree

    The Haldemans lived in abject poverty, with barely a roof over their heads.


    (v.) to give up

    The losing team may abjure to the team that is winning.


    (n.) a denial

    The woman’s abnegation of her loss was apparent when she began to laugh.


    (v.) to loathe; to hate

    Randall abominated all the traffic he encountered on every morning commute.

    Please do not abominate the guilty person until you hear the complete explanation.


    (v.) to shorten; to limit

    The editor abridged the story to make the book easier to digest.


    (v.) to cancel by authority

    The judge would not abrogate the law.


    (adj.) happening or ending unexpectedly

    The abrupt end to their marriage was a shock to everyone.


    (v.) to go away hastily or secretly; to hide

    The newly wed couple will abscond from the reception to leave on the honeymoon.


    (v.) to forgive; to acquit

    The judge will absolve the person of all charges.  After feuding for many years, the brothers absolved each other for the
    many arguments they had.


    (adj.) sparing in use of food or drinks

    If we become stranded in the snow storm, we will have to be abstemious with our food supply.

    In many abstemious cultures the people are so thin due to the belief that too much taken into the body leads to
    contamination of the soul.  abstinence (n.) the act or process of voluntarily refraining from any action or practice; self-
    control; chastity In preparation for the Olympic games, the athletes practiced abstinence from red meat and junk food,
    adhering instead to a menu of pasta and produce.


    (adj.) hard to understand; deep; recondite

    The topic was so abstruse the student was forced to stop reading.

    The concept was too abstruse for the average student to grasp.


    (adj.) very deep

    The abysmal waters contained little plant life.


    (v.) to comply with; to consent to

    With defeat imminent, the rebel army acceded to hash out a peace treaty.


    (n.) loud approval; applause

    Edward Albee’s brilliantly written Broadway revival of A Delicate Balance received wide acclaim.  accolade (n.) approving
    or praising mention; a sign of approval or respect Rich accolades were bestowed on the returning hero.  Accolades flowed
    into her dressing room following the opening-night triumph.  accomplice (n.) co-conspirator; partner; partner-in-crime The
    bank robber’s accomplice drove the get-away car.  accretion (n.)growth by addition; a growing together by parts With the
    accretion of the new members, the club doubled its original size.  The addition of the new departments accounts for the
    accretion of the company.


    (v.) a natural growth; a periodic increase

    Over the course of her college career, she managed to accrue a great deal of knowledge.

    The savings were able to accrue a sizable amount of interest each year.  During his many years of collecting stamps, he
    was able to accrue a large collection of valuable items.  acerbic (adj.) tasting sour; harsh in language or temper Too much
    Bay Leaf will make the eggplant acerbic.  The baby’s mouth puckered when she was given the acerbic medicine.  The
    columnist’s acerbic comments about the First Lady drew a strong denunciation from the President.


    (v.) to agree without protest

    The group acquiesced to the new regulations even though they were opposed to them.

    After a hard-fought battle, the retailers finally acquiesced to the draft regulations.


    (adj.) sharp; bitter; foul smelling

    Although the soup is a healthy food choice, it is so acrid not many people choose to eat it.

    The fire at the plastics factory caused an acrid odor to be emitted throughout the surrounding neighborhood.  acrimony
    (n.) sharpness or bitterness in language or manner.  The acrimony of her response was shocking.  adage (n.) an old
    saying now accepted as being truthful The adage “do unto others as you wish them to do unto you” is still widely practiced.


    (adj.) not yielding, firm

    After taking an adamant stand to sell the house, the man called the real estate agency.

    The girl’s parents were adamant about not allowing her to go on a dangerous backpacking trip.


    (adj.) rotten

    The egg will become addled if it is left unrefrigerated.


    (adj.) skilled; practiced

    The skilled craftsman was quite adept at creating beautiful vases and candleholders.


    (v.) solemnly ordered

    The jurors were adjured by the judge to make a fair decision.


    (adj.) expert or skillful

    The repair was not difficult for the adroit craftsman.

    The driver’s adroit driving avoided a serious accident.


    (n.) praise in excess

    The adulation was in response to the heroic feat.

    The adulation given to the movie star was sickening.


    (v.) to corrupt, debase, or make impure

    The dumping of chemicals will adulterate the pureness of the lake.


    (n.) an enemy; foe

    The peace treaty united two countries that were historically great adversaries.  adverse (adj.) negative; hostile;
    antagonistic; inimical Contrary to the ski resort’s expectations, the warm weather generated adverse conditions for a
    profitable weekend.  advocate (v.; n.) to plead in favor of; supporter; defender Amnesty International advocates the cause
    for human rights.  Martin Luther King, Jr. was a great advocate of civil rights.  aesthetic (adj.) of beauty; pertaining to taste
    in art and beauty She found that her aesthetic sense and that of the artist were at odds.  His review made one wonder
    what kind of aesthetic taste the critic had.


    (adj.) friendly; amiable; good-natured

    Her affable puppy loved to play with children.  affiliate (v.) to connect or associate with; to accept as a member The hiking
    club affiliated with the bird-watching club.


    (n.) a connection; similarity of structure

    There is a strong emotional affinity between the two siblings.

    It turns out that the elements bear a strong affinity to each other.


    (v.) to make more powerful

    The king wanted to aggrandize himself and his kingdom.  aghast (adj.) astonished; amazed; horrified; terrified; appalled
    Stockholders were aghast at the company’s revelation.  The landlord was aghast at his water bill.


    (adj.) of the land

    Many agrarian people are poor.


    (n.) eager readiness or speed

    The manager was so impressed by the worker’s alacrity; he suggested a promotion.

    On the first day of her new job, the recent college graduate was able to leave early after completing all of her tasks with


    (n.) a person who studies chemistry

    The alchemist’s laboratory was full of bottles and tubes of strange

    looking liquids.


    (n.) any mysterious change of substance or nature

    The magician used alchemy to change the powder into a liquid


    (n.) a symbolic description

    The book contained many allegories on Russian history.


    (v.) to lessen or make easier

    The airport’s monorail alleviates vehicular traffic.


    (v.) set aside; designate; assign

    There have been front row seats allocated to the performer’s family.

    The farmer allocated three acres of his fields to corn.


    (v.) to refer indirectly to something

    The story alludes to part of the author’s life.

    Without stating that the defendant was an ex-convict, the prosecutor alluded to the fact by mentioning his length of
    unemployment.  allure (v.; n.) to attract; entice; attraction; temptation; glamour The romantic young man allured the
    beautiful woman by preparing a wonderful dinner.

    Singapore’s allure is its bustling economy.  allusion (n.) an indirect reference (often literary); a hint The mention of the pet
    snake was an allusion to the man’s sneaky ways.  In modern plays allusions are often made to ancient drama.


    (adj.) distant in interest; reserved; cool

    Even though the new coworker was aloof, we attempted to be friendly.  The calm defendant remained aloof when he was
    wrongly accused of fabricating his story.


    (n.) controversy; dispute

    A serious altercation caused the marriage to end in a bitter divorce.  altruism (n.) unselfish devotion to the welfare of
    others After the organization aided the catastrophe victims, it was given an award for altruism.

    She displayed such altruism by giving up all of her belongings and joining a peace corps in Africa.


    (adj.) unselfish

    The altruistic volunteer donated much time and energy in an effort to raise funds for the children’s hospital.  amalgam (n.)
    a mixture or combination (often of metals) The art display was an amalgam of modern and traditional pieces.  That ring is
    made from an amalgam of minerals; if it were pure gold it would never hold its shape.


    (v.) to mix, merge, combine

    If the economy does not grow, the business may need to amalgamate with a rival company.

    The three presidents decided to amalgamate their businesses to build one strong company.


    (v.) to collect together; accumulate

    Over the years the sailor has amassed many replicas of boats.

    The women amassed a huge collection of priceless diamonds and pearls.


    (adj.) not clear; uncertain; vague

    The ambiguous law did not make a clear distinction between the new and old land boundary.


    (adj.) undecided

    The ambivalent jury could not reach a unanimous verdict.


    (v.) to improve or make better

    A consistent routine of exercise has shown to ameliorate health.

    We can ameliorate the flooding problem by changing the grading.


    (n.) a positive change

    The amendment in his ways showed there was still reason for hope.


    (adj.) friendly

    The newcomer picked the most amiable person to sit next to during the meeting.  
    amiss (adj.; adv.) wrong; awry; wrongly; in a defective manner Seeing that his anorak was gone, he knew something was
    amiss .  Its new muffler aside, the car was behaving amiss.


    (n.) friendly relations

    The amity between the two bordering nations put the populations at ease.
    amorphous (adj.) with no shape; unorganized; having no determinate form The amorphous gel seeped through the
    cracks.  The amorphous group quickly got lost.

    The scientist could not determine the sex of the amorphous organism.  
    amortize (v.) to put money into a fund at fixed intervals The couple was able to amortize their mortgage sooner than they
    thought.  anachronism (n.) something out of place in time (e.g., an airplane in 1492) The editor recognized an
    anachronism in the manuscript where the character from the 1500s boarded an airplane.  He realized that the film about
    cavemen contained an anachronism when he saw a jet cut across the horizon during a hunting scene.


    (n.) similarity; correlation; parallelism

    The teacher used an analogy to describe the similarities between the two books.

    Comparing the newly discovered virus with one found long ago, the scientist made an analogy between the two


    (n.) an allergic reaction

    The boy’s severe anaphylaxis to a series of medications made writing prescriptions a tricky proposition.  anarchist (n.)
    one who believes that a formal government is unnecessary The yell from the crowd came from the anarchist protesting the

    The anarchist attempted to overthrow the established democratic government of the new nation and reinstate chaos and


    (n.) something that can be relied on

    Knowing the neighbors were right next door was an anchorage for the elderly


    (n.) a short account of happenings

    The speaker told an anecdote about how he lost his shoes when he was young.


    (n.) a feeling of hatred or ill will

    Animosity grew between the two feuding families.


    (v.) to crown; ordain;

    A member of the monarchy was anointed by the king.  anomaly (n.) an oddity, inconsistency; a deviation from the norm An
    anomaly existed when the report listed one statistic, and the spokeswoman reported another.

    In a parking lot full of Buicks, Chevys, and Plymouths, the Jaguar was an anomaly.


    (adj.) nameless; unidentified

    Not wishing to be identified by the police, he remained anonymous by returning the money he had stolen by sending it
    through the mail.


    (n.) hostility; opposition

    The antagonism was created by a misunderstanding.  The rebellious clan captured a hostage to display antagonism to
    the new peace treaty.


    (n.) a strong dislike or repugnance

    Her antipathy for large crowds convinced her to decline the invitation to the city.

    The vegetarian had an antipathy toward meat.


    (n.) lack of emotion or interest

    He showed apathy when his relative was injured.  The disheartened peasants expressed apathy toward the new law
    which promised new hope and prosperity for all.  apocalyptic (adj.) pertaining to a discovery or new revelation Science-
    fiction movies seem to relish apocalyptic visions.  apocryphal (adj.) counterfeit; of doubtful authorship or authenticity The
    man who said he was a doctor was truly apocryphal.


    (v.) to satisfy; to calm

    A milk bottle usually appeases a crying baby.


    (adj.) suitable; apt; relevant

    Discussion of poverty was apposite to the curriculum, so the professor allowed it.

    Without reenacting the entire scenario, the situation can be understood if apposite information is given.


    (adj.) fearful; aware; conscious

    The nervous child was apprehensive about beginning a new school year.


    (adj.) approving or sanctioning

    The judge showed his acceptance in his approbatory remark.


    (adj.) suitable (as land) for plowing

    When the land was deemed arable the farmer decided to plow.  arbiter (n.) one who is authorized to judge or decide The
    decision of who would represent the people was made by the arbiter.  arbitrary (adj.) based on one’s preference or
    judgment Rick admitted his decision had been arbitrary, as he claimed no expertise on the matter.


    (adj.) obscure; secret; mysterious

    With an arcane expression, the young boy left the family wondering what sort of mischief he had committed.

    The wizard’s description of his magic was purposefully arcane so that others would be unable to copy it.


    (n.) original pattern or model; prototype

    This man was the archetype for scores of fictional characters.  The scientist was careful with the archetype of her
    invention so that once manufacturing began, it would be easy to reproduce it.


    (adj.) with passionate or intense feelings

    The fans’ ardent love of the game kept them returning to watch the terrible team.


    (adj.) laborious, difficult; strenuous

    Completing the plans for the new building proved to be an arduous affair.  Building a house is arduous work, but the
    result is well worth the labor.  arid (adj.) extremely dry, parched; barren, unimaginative The terrain was so arid that not one
    species of plant could survive.  Their thirst became worse due to the arid condition of the desert.  aromatic (adj.) having a
    smell which is sweet or spicy The aromatic smell coming from the oven made the man’s mouth water.


    (adj.) acting superior to others; conceited

    After purchasing his new, expensive sports car, the arrogant doctor refused to allow anyone to ride with him to the country


    (v.) to claim or demand unduly

    The teenager arrogated that he should be able to use his parent’s car whenever he desired.  articulate (v.; adj.) to utter
    clearly and distinctly; clear, distinct; expressed with clarity; skillful with words It’s even more important to articulate your
    words when you’re on the phone.

    You didn’t have to vote for him to agree that Adlai Stevenson was articulate.

    A salesperson must be articulate when speaking to a customer.


    (n.) skill in a craft

    The artifice of glass-making takes many years of practice.  ascetic (n.; adj.) one who leads a simple life of self-denial;
    rigorously abstinent The monastery is filled with ascetics who have devoted their lives to religion.

    The nuns lead an ascetic life devoted to the Lord.


    (adj.) germ free

    It is necessary for an operating room to be aseptic.


    (adv.) a sideways glance of disapproval

    The look askance proved the guard suspected some wrongdoing.


    (n.) harshness

    The man used asperity to frighten the girl out of going.  The asperity of the winter had most everybody yearning for spring.  
    aspersion (n.) slanderous statement; a damaging or derogatory criticism The aspersion damaged the credibility of the
    organization.  He blamed the loss of his job on an aspersion stated by his co-worker to his superior.


    (n.) a person who goes after high goals

    The aspirant would not settle for assistant director—only the top job was good enough.  assay (n.) to determine the quality
    of a substance.  Have the soil assayed.


    (v.) to estimate the value of

    She assessed the possible rewards to see if the project was worth her time and effort.


    (adj.) carefully attentive; industrious

    It is necessary to be assiduous if a person wishes to make the most of his time at work.

    He enjoys having assiduous employees because he can explain a procedure once and have it performed correctly every


    (v.) to relieve; ease; make less severe

    Medication should assuage the pain.

    The medication helped assuage the pain of the wound.  astringent (n.; adj.) a substance that contracts bodily tissues;
    causing contraction; tightening; stern, austere After the operation an astringent was used on his skin so that the stretched
    area would return to normal.

    The downturn in sales caused the CEO to impose astringent measures.

    Her astringent remarks at the podium would not soon be forgotten.


    (adj.) cunning; sly; crafty

    The astute lawyer’s questioning convinced the jury of the defendant’s guilt.  
    atrophy (v.; n.) to waste away, as from lack of use; to wither; failure to grow A few months after he lost his ability to walk, his
    legs began to atrophy.  The atrophy of the muscles was due to the injury.


    (v.) to thin out; to weaken

    Water is commonly used to attenuate strong chemicals.

    The chemist attenuated the solution by adding water.


    (adj.) something that is abnormal

    The atypical behavior of the wild animal alarmed the hunters.


    (adj.) fearless; bold

    The audacious soldier went into battle without a shield.


    (v.) to increase or add to; to make larger

    They needed more soup so they augmented the recipe.

    They were able to augment their savings over a period of time.


    (adj.) to be imposing or magnificent

    The palace was august in gold and crystal.


    (adj.) being of a good omen; successful

    It was auspicious that the sun shone on the first day of the trip.  The campaign had an auspicious start, foreshadowing
    the future.  austere (adj.) having a stern look; having strict self-discipline The old woman always has an austere look
    about her.  The austere teacher assigned five pages of homework each day.


    (adj.) real; genuine; trustworthy

    An authentic diamond will cut glass.


    (n.; adj.) acting as a dictator; demanding obedience The authoritarian made all of the rules but did none of the work.  Fidel
    Castro is reluctant to give up his authoritarian rule.  autocracy (n.) an absolute monarchy; government where one
    person holds power The autocracy was headed by a demanding man.  She was extremely power-hungry and therefore
    wanted her government to be an autocracy.


    (n.) an absolute ruler

    The autocrat in charge of the government was a man of power and prestige.

    The autocrat made every decision and divided the tasks among his subordinates.
    avarice (n.) inordinate desire for gaining and possessing wealth The man’s avarice for money kept him at work through
    the evenings and weekends.

    The avarice of the president led to his downfall.


    (v.) to affirm as true

    The witness was able to aver the identity of the defendant.  awry (adj; adv.) crooked(ly); uneven(ly); wrong; askew Hearing
    the explosion in the laboratory, the scientist realized the experiment had gone awry.


    (adj.) the clear blue color of the sky

    The azure sky made the picnic day perfect.


    (adj.) harmful, malign, detrimental

    After she was fired, she realized it was a baleful move to point the blame at her superior.

    The strange liquid could be baleful if ingested.


    (adj.) trite; without freshness or originality

    Attending parties became trite after a few weeks.  It was a banal suggestion to have the annual picnic in the park, since
    that was where it had been for the past five years.


    (adj.) deadly or causing distress, death

    Not wearing a seat belt could be baneful.


    (adj.) extravagant; ornate; embellished

    The baroque artwork was made up of intricate details which kept the museum-goers enthralled.

    The baroque furnishings did not fit in the plain, modest home.


    (n.) a fortified place or strong defense

    The strength of the bastion saved the soldiers inside of it.


    (v.) to gain

    The team could only batten by drafting the top player.


    (n.) a showy yet useless thing

    The woman had many baubles on her bookshelf.


    (v.) to bring into being

    The king wished to beget a new heir.


    (adj.) indebted to

    The children were beholden to their parents for the car loan.


    (v.) to be advantageous; to be necessary

    It will behoove the students to buy their textbooks early.


    (v.) to make small; to think lightly of

    The unsympathetic friend belittled her friend’s problems and spoke of her own as the most important.


    (adj.) quarrelsome; warlike

    The bellicose guest would not be invited back again.


    (v.) to preoccupy in thought

    The girl was bemused by her troubles.


    (n.) one who helps others; a donor

    An anonymous benefactor donated $10,000 to the children’s hospital.  beneficent (adj.) conferring benefits; kindly; doing
    good He is a beneficent person, always taking in stray animals and talking to people who need someone to listen.

    A beneficent donation helped the organization meet its goal.


    (adj.) kind; generous

    The professor proved a tough questioner, but a benevolent grader.

    The benevolent gentleman volunteered his services.


    (adj.) mild; harmless

    A lamb is a benign animal, especially when compared with a lion.


    (v.) scold; reprove; reproach; criticize

    The child was berated by her parents for breaking the china.  bereft (v.; adj.) to be deprived of; to be in a sad manner; hurt
    by someone’s death The loss of his job will leave the man bereft of many luxuries.  The widower was bereft for many years
    after his wife’s death.


    (v.) to ask earnestly

    The soldiers beseeched the civilians for help.


    (v.) to dirty or discolor

    The soot from the chimney will besmirch clean curtains.


    (adj.) having the qualities of a beast; brutal

    The bestial employer made his employees work in an unheated room.


    (v.) to promise or pledge in marriage

    The man betrothed his daughter to the prince.


    (adj.) prejudiced; influenced; not neutral

    The vegetarian had a biased opinion regarding what should be ordered for dinner.  biennial (adj.; n.) happening every two
    years; a plant which blooms every two years The biennial journal’s influence seemed only magnified by its infrequent

    She has lived here for four years and has seen the biennials bloom twice.  bilateral (adj.) pertaining to or affecting both
    sides or two sides; having two sides A bilateral decision was made so that both partners reaped equal benefits from the
    same amount of work.

    The brain is a bilateral organ, consisting of a left and right hemisphere.  
    blasphemous (adj.) irreligious; away from acceptable standards; speaking ill of using profane language The upper-class
    parents thought that it was blasphemous for their son to marry a waitress.

    His blasphemous outburst was heard throughout the room.


    (adj.) obvious; unmistakable; crude; vulgar

    The blatant foul was reason for ejection.

    The defendant was blatant in his testimony.


    (adj.) causing frustration or destruction

    The blighted tornado left only one building standing in its wake.  blithe (adj.) happy; cheery; merry; a cheerful disposition
    The wedding was a blithe celebration.

    The blithe child was a pleasant surprise.


    (v.) to foretell something

    The storm bode that we would not reach our destination.


    (n.) pompous speech; pretentious words

    After he delivered his bombast at the podium, he arrogantly left the meeting.

    The presenter ended his bombast with a prediction of his future success.


    (adj.) pompous; wordy; turgid

    The bombastic woman talks a lot about herself.


    (n.) a rude person

    The boor was not invited to the party, but he came anyway.


    (n.) the distance from one side to another

    The table cloth was too small to cover the breadth of the table.


    (n.) briefness; shortness

    On Top 40 AM radio, brevity was the coin of the realm.


    (adj.) mixed with a darker color

    In order to get matching paint we made a brindled mixture.


    (v.) to introduce into conversation

    Broaching the touchy subject was difficult.


    (adj.) abrupt in manner or speech

    His brusque answer was neither acceptable nor polite.  bucolic (adj.) having to do with shepherds or the country The
    bucolic setting inspired the artist.


    (adj.) arrogant

    He was bumptious in manner as he approached the podium to accept his
    anticipated award.


    (n.) a clumsy person

    The one who broke the crystal vase was a true bungler.


    (v.) to grow or develop quickly

    The tumor appeared to burgeon more quickly than normal.  After the first punch was thrown, the dispute burgeoned into a
    brawl.  burlesque (v.; n.) to imitate in a non-serious manner; a comical imitation His stump speeches were so hackneyed,
    he seemed to be burlesquing of his role as a congressman.

    George Burns was considered one of the great practitioners of burlesque.


    (adj.) strong; bulky; stocky

    The lumberjack was a burly man.


    (v.) to polish by rubbing

    The vase needed to be burnished to restore its beauty.


    (n.) a group of persons joined by a secret

    The very idea that there could be a cabal cast suspicion on the whole operation.  cache (n.) stockpile; store; heap; hiding
    place for goods The town kept a cache of salt on hand to melt winter’s snow off the roads.

    Extra food is kept in the cache under the pantry.

    The cache for his jewelry was hidden under the bed.


    (adj.) sounding jarring

    The cacophonous sound from the bending metal sent shivers up our spines.  cacophony (n.) a harsh, inharmonious
    collection of sounds; dissonance The beautiful harmony of the symphony was well enjoyed after the cacophony coming
    from the stage as the orchestra warmed up.  The amateur band created more cacophony than beautiful sound.


    (v.) to coax with insincere talk

    To cajole the disgruntled employee, the manager coaxed him with lies and sweet talk.

    The salesman will cajole the couple into buying the stereo.


    (n.) disaster

    The fire in the apartment building was a great calamity.


    (n.) quality

    The caliber of talent at the show was excellent.


    (adj.) being young or immature

    With the callow remark the young man demonstrated his age.  Although the girl could be considered an adult, the action
    was very callow.


    (n.) slander

    I felt it necessary to speak against the calumny of the man’s good reputation.


    (n.) a false statement or rumor

    The canard was reported in a scandalous tabloid.


    (adj.) honest; truthful; sincere

    People trust her because she’s so candid.


    (n.) insincere or hypocritical statements of high ideals; the jargon of a particular group or occupations The theater majors
    had difficulty understanding the cant of the computer scientists.

    The remarks by the doctor were cant and meant only for his associates.  caprice (n.) a sudden, unpredictable or
    whimsical change The caprice with which the couple approached the change of plans was evidence to their young age.

    The king ruled by caprice as much as law.


    (adj.) changeable; fickle

    The capricious bride-to-be has a different church in mind for her wedding every few days.


    (adj.) disposed to find fault

    A captious attitude often causes difficulties in a relationship.

    carte blanche

    (n.) unlimited authority

    The designer was given carte blanche to create a new line for the fall.


    (n; v.) waterfall; pour; rush; fall

    The hikers stopped along the path to take in the beauty of the rushing cascade.

    The water cascaded down the rocks into the pool.

    He took a photograph of the lovely cascade.

    The drapes formed a cascade down the window.


    (v.) to punish through public criticism

    The mayor castigated the police chief for the rash of robberies.


    (n.) an extreme natural force

    The earthquake has been the first cataclysm in five years.  catalyst (n.) anything which creates a situation in which change
    can occur The low pressure system was the catalyst for the nor’easter.  catharsis (n.) a purging or relieving of the body or
    soul He experienced a total catharsis after the priest absolved his sins.  Admitting his guilt served as a catharsis for the


    (adj.) eating away at; sarcastic words

    The caustic chemicals are dangerous.

    The girl harmed her mother with her caustic remarks.  His caustic sense of humor doesn’t go over so well when people
    don’t know what they’re in for.


    (v.) to bicker

    The children are constantly caviling.


    (v.) to examine and delete objectionable material

    The children were allowed to watch the adult movie only after it had been censored.  censure (n.; v.) a disapproval; an
    expression of disapproval; to criticize or disapprove of His remarks drew the censure of his employers.  A censure of the
    new show upset the directors.

    Her parents censured her idea of dropping out of school.


    (adj.) very formal or proper

    The black-tie dinner was highly ceremonious.


    (n.)ceasing; a stopping

    The cessation of a bad habit is often difficult to sustain.  chafe (v.) to annoy, to irritate; to wear away or make sore by
    rubbing His constant teasing chafed her.

    He doesn’t wear pure wool sweaters because they usually chafe his skin.


    (n.) banter; teasing

    The king was used to his jesters good-natured chaffing.  chagrin (n.) a feeling of embarrassment due to failure or
    disappointment To the chagrin of the inventor, the machine did not work.  She turned red-faced with chagrin when she
    learned that her son had been caught shoplifting.


    (n.) appeal; magnetism; presence

    She has such charisma that everyone likes her the first time they meet her.  charlatan (n.) a person who pretends to have
    knowledge; an impostor; fake The charlatan deceived the townspeople.

    It was finally discovered that the charlatan sitting on the throne was not the real king.


    (adj.) cautious; being sparing in giving

    Be chary when driving at night.

    The chary man had few friends.


    (adj.) virtuous; free of obscenity

    Because the woman believed in being chaste, she would not let her date into the


    (v.) to punish; discipline; admonish

    The dean chastised the first-year student for cheating on the exam.


    (v.) to feel love for

    The bride vowed to cherish the groom for life.


    (n.) trickery or deception

    The swindler was trained in chicanery.

    A news broadcast is no place for chicanery.


    (n.) an impossible fancy

    Perhaps he saw a flying saucer, but perhaps it was only a chimera.  choleric (adj.) cranky; cantankerous; easily moved to
    feeling displeasure The choleric man was continually upset by his neighbors.  Rolly becomes choleric when his views are


    (v.) to make a gleeful, chuckling sound

    The chortles emanating from the audience indicated it wouldn’t be as tough a crowd as the stand-up comic had
    expected.  churlishness (n.) crude or surly behavior; behavior of a peasant The fraternity’s churlishness ran afoul of the
    dean’ s office.  The churlishness of the teenager caused his employer to lose faith in him.  circumlocution (n.) a
    roundabout or indirect way of speaking; not to the point The man’s speech contained so much circumlocution that I was
    unsure of the point he was trying to make.

    The child made a long speech using circumlocution to avoid stating that it was she who had knocked over the lamp.  
    circumlocutory (adj.) being too long, as in a description or expression; a roundabout, indirect, or ungainly way of
    expressing something It was a circumlocutory documentary that could have been cut to half its running time to say twice
    as much.


    (adj.) considering all circumstances

    A circumspect decision must be made when so many people are involved.


    (n.) a fortress set up high to defend a city

    A citadel sat on the hill to protect the city below.


    (adj.) secret

    The clandestine plan must be kept between the two of us!


    (n.) mercy toward an offender; mildness

    The governor granted the prisoner clemency.  The weather’s clemency made for a perfect picnic.  cloture (n.) a
    parliamentary procedure to end debate and begin to vote Cloture was declared as the parliamentarians readied to
    register their votes. cloying (adj.) too sugary; too sentimental or flattering After years of marriage the husband still gave
    cloying gifts to his wife.  Complimenting her on her weight loss, clothing and hairstyle was a cloying way to begin asking
    for a raise.  coagulate (v.) to become a semisolid, soft mass; to clot The liquid will coagulate and close the tube if left


    (v.) to grow together

    The bride and groom coalesced their funds to increase their collateral.

    At the end of the conference the five groups coalesced in one room.


    (n.) in music, a concluding passage

    By the end of the coda, I was ready to burst with excitement over the thrilling performance.

    The audience knew that the concerto was about to end when they heard the orchestra begin playing the coda.


    (v.) to treat with tenderness

    A baby needs to be coddled.


    (v.) to organize laws or rules into a systematic collection The laws were codified by those whom they affected.  The intern
    codified all the city’s laws into a computerized filing system.  coffer (n.) a chest where money or valuables are kept
    The coffer that contained the jewels was stolen.  cogent (adj.) to the point; clear; convincing in its clarity and presentation
    The lawyer makes compelling and cogent presentations, which evidently help him win 96 percent of his cases.

    He made a short, cogent speech which his audience easily understood.


    (v.) to think hard; ponder; meditate

    It is necessary to cogitate on decisions which affect life goals.  The room was quiet while every student cogitated during
    the calculus exam.  cognate (adj.; n.) having the same family; a person related through ancestry English and German are
    cognate languages.  The woman was a cognate to the royal family.  cognitive (adj.) possessing the power to think or
    meditate; meditative; capable of perception Cognitive thought makes humans adaptable to a quickly changing

    Once the toddler was able to solve puzzles, it was obvious that her cognitive abilities were developing.


    (adj.) aware of; perceptive

    She became alarmed when she was cognizant of the man following her.  It was critical to establish whether the defendant
    was cognizant of his rights.  coherent (adj.) sticking together; connected; logical; consistent The course was a success
    due to its coherent information.  If he couldn’t make a coherent speech, how could he run for office?


    (n.) the act of holding together

    The cohesion of the group increased as friendships were formed.

    The cohesion of different molecules forms different substances.


    (n.) a group; band

    The cohort of teens gathered at the athletic field.


    (v.) to work together; cooperate

    The two builders collaborated to get the house finished.  colloquial (adj.) having to do with conversation; informal speech
    The colloquial reference indicated the free spirit of the group.  When you listen to the difference between spoken colloquial
    conversation and written work, you realize how good an ear a novelist must have to write authentic dialogue.


    (n.) secret agreement for an illegal purpose

    The authority discovered a collusion between the director and treasurer.  comeliness (n.) beauty; attractiveness in
    appearance or behavior The comeliness of the woman attracted everyone’s attention.


    (v.) to show sympathy for

    The hurricane victims commiserated about the loss of their homes.


    (adj.) spacious and convenient; roomy

    The new home was so commodious that many new pieces of furniture needed to be purchased.


    (adj.) shared or common ownership

    The communal nature of the project made everyone pitch in to help.


    (adj.) in agreement with; harmonious

    When repairing an automobile, it is necessary to use parts compatible with that make and model.


    (adj.) content; self-satisfied; smug

    The CEO worries regularly that his firm’s winning ways will make it complacent.

    The candidate was so complacent with his poll numbers that he virtually stopped campaigning.  complaisance (n.) the
    quality of being agreeable or eager to please The complaisance of the new assistant made it easy for the managers to
    give him a lot of work without worrying that he may complain.


    (adj.) complying; obeying; yielding

    Compliant actions should be reinforced.

    The slave was compliant with every order to avoid being whipped.


    (v.) fitting in

    It was easy to comport to the new group of employees.


    (adj.) all-inclusive; complete; thorough

    It’s the only health facility around to offer comprehensive care.


    (v.) to settle by mutual adjustment

    Labor leaders and the automakers compromised by agreeing to a starting wage of $16 an hour in exchange for
    concessions on health-care premiums.  concede (v.) to acknowledge; admit; to surrender; to abandon one’s position
    After much wrangling, the conceded that the minister had a point.  Satisfied with the recount, the mayor conceded


    (n.) an exaggerated personal opinion

    The man’s belief that he was the best player on the team was pure conceit.


    (n.) an attempt to make friendly or placate

    The attempt at conciliation


    (adj.) to reconcile

    The diplomat sought to take a conciliatory approach to keep the talks going.


    (adj.) in few words; brief; condensed

    The concise instructions were printed on two pages rather than the customary five.  conclave (n.) any private meeting or
    closed assembly The conclave was to meet in the executive suite.  condescend (v.) to come down from one’s position or
    dignity The arrogant, rich man was usually condescending towards his servants.


    (v.) to overlook; to forgive

    The loving and forgiving mother condoned her son’s life of crime I will condone your actions of negligence.


    (n.) a thing which is joined together

    Great cities often lie at the confluence of great rivers.  confound (v.) to lump together, causing confusion; to damn The
    problem confounded our ability to solve it.  Confound you, you scoundrel!


    (n.) a collection or mixture of various things

    The conglomeration is made up of four different interest groups.

    The soup was a conglomeration of meats and vegetables.


    (v.) to combine

    The classes will conjoin to do the play.


    (v.) to call upon or appeal to; to cause to be, appear, come The smell of the dinner conjured images of childhood.  The
    magician conjured a rabbit out of a hat.


    (n.) secret cooperation in wrongdoing

    With the guard’s connivance, the convict was able to make his escape.  connoisseur (n.) expert; authority (usually refers to
    a wine or food expert) They allowed her to choose the wine for dinner since she was the connoisseur.  
    connotative (adj.) containing associated meanings in addition to the primary one Along with the primary meaning of the
    word, there were two connotative meanings.

    The connotative meaning of their music was spelled out in the video.


    (v.) to declare sacred; to dedicate

    We will consecrate the pact during the ceremony.

    The park was consecrated to the memory of the missing soldier.


    (adj.) following as an effect; important

    His long illness and consequential absence set him behind in his homework.

    The decision to move the company will be consequential to its success.


    (n.; v.) a companion, spouse; to associate

    An elderly woman was seeking a consort.

    They waited until dark to consort under the moonlight.


    (adj.) easy to see; noticeable

    The diligent and hardworking editor thought the obvious mistake was conspicuous.  consternation (n.) amazement or
    terror that causes confusion The look of consternation on the child’s face caused her father to panic.


    (v.) to force, compel; to restrain

    It may be necessary to constrain the wild animal if it approaches the town.

    The student was constrained to remain in her seat until the teacher gave her permission to leave.


    (n.) the completion; finish

    Following the consummation of final exams, most of the students graduated.  contemporary (adj.) living or happening at
    the same time; modern Contemporary furniture will clash with your traditional sectional.


    (n.) scorn; disrespect

    The greedy, selfish banker was often discussed with great contempt.


    (adj.) quarrelsome

    The contentious student was asked to leave the classroom.  They hate his contentious behavior because every
    suggestion they give ends in a fight.


    (v.) to attempt to disprove or invalidate

    I will attempt to contest the criminal charges against me.  contiguous (adj.) touching; or adjoining and close, but not
    touching There are many contiguous buildings in the city because there is no excess land to allow space between them.  
    contravene (v.) to act contrary to; to oppose or contradict The story of the accused contravened the story of the witness.  
    The United Nations held that the Eastern European nation had contravened the treaty.  contrite (adj.) regretful;
    sorrowful; having repentance Regretting his decision not to attend college, the contrite man did not lead a very happy life.

    A contrite heart has fixed its wrongs.


    (adj.) resisting authority

    The man was put in jail for contumacious actions.  contusion (n.) a bruise; an injury where the skin is not broken The man
    was fortunate to receive only contusions from the crash.


    (n.) a puzzle or riddle

    I spent two hours trying to figure out the conundrum.  The legend says that to enter the secret passageway, one must
    answer the ancient conundrum.


    (adj.) traditional; common; routine

    The bride wanted a conventional wedding ceremony, complete with white dresses, many flowers, and a grand reception
    party.  Conventional telephones are giving way to videophones.  converge (v.) to move toward one point (opposite: diverge)
    It was obvious that an accident was going to occur as the onlookers watched the two cars converge.

    The two roads converge at the corner.


    (n.) a fondness for festiveness or joviality

    His conviviality makes him a welcome guest at any social gathering.


    (v.) a call to assemble

    The teacher convoked her students in the auditorium to help prepare them for the play.


    (adj.) abundant; in great quantities

    Her copious notes touched on every subject presented in the lecture.


    (n.) obesity

    The corpulence of the man kept him from fitting into the seat.


    (v.) to bring into mutual relation

    The service man was asked to correlate the two computer demonstration pamphlets.


    (v.) to confirm the validity

    The witness must corroborate the prisoner’s story if she is to be set free.  coterie (n.) a clique; a group who meet
    frequently, usually socially A special aspect of campus life is joining a coterie.  Every day after school she joins her coterie
    on the playground and they go out for a soda.


    (n.) a binding and solemn agreement

    With the exchange of vows, the covenant was complete.


    (adj.) greedy; very desirous

    Lonnie, covetous of education, went to almost every lecture at the university.

    Covetous of her neighbor’s pool, she did everything she could to make things unpleasant..


    (v.) to huddle and tremble

    The lost dog cowered near the tree.

    The tellers cowered in the corner as the bandit ransacked the bank.  coy (adj.) modest; bashful; pretending shyness to
    attract Her coy manners attracted the man.

    He’s not really that shy, he’s just being coy.  crass (adj.) stupid or dull; insensitive; materialistic To make light of someone’
    s weakness is crass.  They made their money the old-fashioned way, but still they were accused of being crass.

    My respect for the man was lowered when he made the crass remark.


    (n.; adj.) coward; abject person; cowardly

    While many fought for their rights, the craven sat shaking, off in a corner somewhere.

    Craven men will not stand up for what they believe in.


    (adj.) deserving blame; guilty

    The convicted criminal still denies that he is culpable for the robbery.


    (n.) a restraint or framework

    A curb was put up along the street to help drainage.


    (n.) an ill-tempered person

    The curmudgeon asked the children not to play near the house.


    (adj.) hasty; slight

    The detective’s cursory examination of the crime scene caused him to overlook the lesser clues.  


    (n.) one who believes that others are motivated entirely by selfishness.  

    The cynic felt that the hero saved the man to become famous.

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